Monday, October 14, 2019

About Kerman


Historical and Cultural Background of Kerman

The city of Kerman boasts a long history, and some historians and scholars have asserted that the record of human settlement in Kerman dates back to the fourth millennium BC; a city which, in terms of age, is one of the oldest cities of the ancient country of Iran, and one of Iranian five historical cities.

Kerman province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Kerman is in the southeast of Iran with its administrative center in the city of Kerman. This beautiful city is located on a high margin of Kavir-e Lut (Lut Desert) in the south-central of Iran. The city is 1755 m (5758 ft) above the sea level, making it third in elevation among provincial capitals in Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 821,374 in 221389 households making it the 10th most populous city of Iran. Kerman has an area of 180,726 km² that encompasses nearly 11 percent of the land area of Iran. The important cities of this province include: Baft, Bardsir, Bam, Jiroft, Ravar, Rafsanjan, South Roodbar, Zarand, Sirjan, Shahrbabak, Anbarabad, Ghaleh Ganj, Kerman, Kouhbanan, Kahnouj, and Manoujan.

The city's many districts are surrounded by mountains that bring variety to Kerman's year-round weather pattern. The northern part of the city is located in an arid desert area, while the highland of the southern part of the city enjoys a more moderate climate. The city of Kerman has a moderate climate. The average annual rainfall is 135 mm. Because it is located close to the Kavir-e lut, Kerman has hot summers, and in the spring it often has violent sand storms. Otherwise, its climate is relatively cool.

Kerman is one of the five historical cities of Iran. From the industrial, political, cultural and scientific points of view, it is the most important city in the southeast of Iran. The economy of Kerman is mostly based on farming and also mining. Sarcheshmeh Copper mine is the second biggest copper mine in the world after the one located in Chile. Pistachio is an important source of economy in Kerman, with Kerman province being the biggest producer of pistachio in Iran and all over the world. Carpet weaving, an old tradition, is one of the main industries of the city and Kermanian carpet  are renowned internationally. 

The most important universities of Kerman province include:

SBUK is a research institution and university of engineering and science offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. SBUK is among the top ten universities and research institutes in Iran. It has an area of 5 million square meters, making it one of the largest universities in Iran and the region. The university has two major campuses in the city of Kerman and several smaller campuses spread out across the province of Kerman offering degrees in over 100 different specialties leading to B.A., B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., D.V.M., or Ph.D. degrees. SBUK was appointed as the Center of Excellence by Iran's Ministry of Science and Technology (Higher Education) in the field of Mathematics. In 1980 the Department of Mathematics was awarded the first doctoral degree in mathematics in all of Iran. Moreover the second and third doctoral candidates in mathematics awarded in the country were also graduates of this department.



GUAT is an advanced research center and graduate-level degree-granting institution in Kerman. It was founded in 2007 and its main campus is located in Mahan, Kerman. GUAT is considered to be one of the most productive research centers of the country. It offers masters and PhD in Electrical, Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Material, Mineral and Photonic Engineering.

·         Shahid Chamran Technical College of Kerman

·         Payam Noor University of Kerman

·         Islamic Azad University of Kerman

·         Kerman Khaje-Nasir Higher Education Center


Some of the Most Popular Sightseeing of Kerman Province:

   Ganjali Khan Complex:

This is a Safavid-era building complex, located in the old center of Kerman. The complex is composed of a school, a square, a Caravanserai, a bathhouse, an Ab_Anbar (water reservoir), a mint, a mosque  and a bazaar . Ganjali Khan Complex was built by Ganjali Khan who governed Kerman, Sistan and Kandahar provinces from 1596 to 1621 under Safavid Shah Abbas I. A number of inscriptions laid inside the complex indicate the exact date when these places have been built. The architect of the complex was Mohammad Soltani from Yazd. The complex covers an area of 11000 square meters and is centered on a large public square—ninety-nine meters by fifty-four meters—which is aligned with Vakil Bazaar running east-west to its south. The square is enveloped by bazaar arcades to the north, south and west and is flanked by the Ganjali Caravanserai to the east. The entrance to the Ganjali bathhouse is located along a section of Vakil Bazaar south of the square, known as Ganjali Khan Bazaar. The complex was built in Isfahani style  of architecture.


    Ganjali Square

In ancient Iran, the squares of the cities were established near the governorships and were places for gatherings and ceremonies. The Ganjali square is ninety-nine meters by fifty-four meter, and Similar to Nagsh-e Jahan Square  in Isfahan  and Mir Chakhmagh Square in Yazd, is surrounded by urban elements such as bazaars, Caravanserais and schools.

           Ganjali Bathhouse

Built in 1631, Ganjali bathhouse is located on the southern side of Ganjali Square, off a section of Vakil Bazaar known as Ganjali Bazaar. The entrance of the building is painted with ornaments of Safavid era. An interesting feature of its architectural finish is that the sculptured stones of the ceiling coincide with that of the flooring. It is composed of a disrobing room, cold room and hot room, all covered with domes carried on squinches. Ganjali Baths are unique works of architecture decorated with exquisite tile works, paintings, stuccos, and arches. In the closet section and main yard of the bath there are many lifelike statues.


      Ganjali Bazaar

The bazaar is located in southern part of Ganjali Square. Inside the bazaar is decorated with exquisite plastework and wall paintings and although they are 400 years old, they are still well-preserved. The bazaar is 93 meters long and is connected to Ganjali square through 16 iwans  and vaults

           Ganjali Caravanserai and Mosque

The Caravanserai is located on the east side of the Ganjali Square. Its portal bears a foundation inscription from 1598 composed by calligrapher Alireza Abbasi. The plan of the caravanserai is based on the four-iwan typology, with double-story halls centered on tall iwans enveloping four sides of an open courtyard. There is an octagonal fountain at the center of the courtyard which is chamfered at the corners. The caravanserai measures thirty-one and a half by twenty-three meters. It has a small domed mosque at one corner that measures five and a half by five meters.


        Bagh e Shahzadeh in Mahan

This remarkable garden was made in the 1890s by the Governor of Kerman. It is a rectangular green oasis surrounded by brown desert. There are pavilions and a central canal. The garden is 5.5 hectares with a rectangular shape and a wall around it. It consists of an entrance structure and gate at the lower end and a two-floor residential structure at the upper end. The distance between these two is ornamented with water fountains that are engined by the natural incline of the land. The garden is a fine example of Persian gardens that take advantage of suitable natural climate. The garden was built originally for Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar Sardari Iravani ca. 1850 and was extended ca.1870 by Abdolhamid Mirza Naserodollehand during the eleven years of his governorship in the Qajar dynasty. The construction was left unfinished, due to the death of Abdolhamid Mirza in the early 1890s .



        Shah Nematollah Vali Shrine in Mahan


     This is a historical complex, located in Mahan, which contains the mausoleum (i.e. tomb) of Shah Nematollah Vali, the renowned Iranian mystic and poet. Shah Nematollah Vali died in 1431 aged over 100. In 1436 a shrine was erected in his honor and became a pilgrimage site; with the attention of successive rulers contributing various additions over the centuries. The shrine complex comprises four courtyards, a reflecting pool, a mosque and twin minarets covered with turquoise tiles from the bottom up to the cupola. The earliest construction is attributed to the Bahmanid ruler Ahmed I Vali who erected the sanctuary chamber in 1436. Shah Abbas I undertook extensions and renovations in 1601, including reconstruction of the tiled blue dome, described as “one of the most magnificent architectural masterpieces in old Persia”. During the Qajar period the site was particularly popular, necessitating the construction of additional courtyards to accommodate increased numbers of pilgrims. The minarets also date from this period. The small room where Nematollah Vali prayed and meditated contains plastework and tile decorations. The complex is also famous for its tile-work and seven ancient wooden doors. The complex includes some courtyards and other sections which are as follows when one moves from the street toward the interior of the mosque: Atabaki courtyard, Vakil-ol-Molki courtyard, Modir-ol-Molki portico, the shrine, Shah Abbasi portico, Mirdamad courtyard and Hosseiniyeh courtyard.


Geographical Location

Kerman province, the vastest Iranian province, at 181,714 km2, is situated in the south eastern Central Iranian Plateau, between 30° 17' 38" North and 57° 5' 3" East. This highland province neighbors South Khorasan and Yazd provinces towards north, Hormozgan province towards south, Sistan and Baluchestan towards east, and Fars towards west.

Due to its topography, special climate, environmental and natural situation, and vastness, Kerman province offers a climatic diversity of hot, to extremely dry, very dry, cold, and a countryside which nears steppe, semi-arid, to desert climates, which is rare and unique in this regard.


The important cities of this province include: Baft, Bardsir, Bam, Jiroft, Ravar, Rafsanjan, South Roodbar, Zarand, Sirjan, Shahrbabak, Anbarabad, Ghaleh Ganj, Kerman, Kouhbanan, Kahnouj, and Manoujan.